As for India???
Rail is a government monopoly, so locomotive and rolling stock construction is part of the monopoly
Their labor rates are dirt cheap, but the department has 1.4 million employees
The Indian civil service mentality demands that they re-invent the wheel, the department has over 2000 scientists doing basic rail engineering research, which is totally superfluous, as what they are inventing can be purchased over the shelf from the likes of EMD/GE/Bombardier/Alstom, a massive dose of not invented here syndrome.
So their cost base is high. I have seen an overseas quote from RITES for locomotives, they were the highest priced of 7 bids, and were trying to flog a variation of the the ALCo DL560C on NG bogies!
RITES (IR's "commercial" arm) has been a dismal failure in Africa, recently run out of Tanzania and Mozambique for poor performance and overcharging.
It will take India decades to develop a competitive free market locomotive building capacity, with manufacturers capable of going head to head with the likes of those from Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. The Chinese loco building "corporations" are still state controlled, with pricing on overseas tenders governed by political more than commercial parameters. The Chinese minimum wage is now higher than Mexico, and only $27 per annum under South Africa, over the next decade they will have to work much smarter to hold their position.